1. In 1891, George Toliver received Patent for Propeller for vessels
2. In 1924, Don Redman, musical prodigy, multi-instrumentalist, composer, arranger, vocalist and bandleader, was the first musician to use the oboe as a jazz instrument in a solo he performed in a recording of “After the Storm,” with Fletcher Henderson and His Orchestra. The piece was recorded by Pathe Actuelle in New York.
3. In 1941, Supreme Court ruled in railroad Jim Crow case brought by Congressman Arthur Mitchell that separate facilities must be substantially equal.
4. In 1957, W. Robert Ming, Chicago lawyer, elected chairman of American Veterans Committee. He was the first Black to head a major national veterans organization.
5. In 1967, Mrs. Robert W. Claytor elected president of the YWCA, the first Black president of the organization.
6. In 1967, World Boxing Association and New York State Athletic Commission withdrew recognition of Muhammad Ali as world heavyweight boxing champion because of his refusal to serve in the U.S. armed forces.
7. In 1971, Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. became the first African American Admiral in the United States Navy.
8. In 1983, Two African American women, Alice Walker and Gloria Naylor, win prestigious American Book Awards for fiction. Alice Walker’s novel “The Color Purple” will be dramatized as a theatrical movie starring Whoopi Goldberg, Danny Glover, and Oprah Winfrey. Naylor’s first novel, “The Women of Brewster Place,” will be made into a made-for-television movie and series starring Oprah Winfrey, Jackee’, and Paula Kelly.
9. In 1992, Mutinous troops in Freetown, Sierra Leone, overthrow the government of president Joseph Momoh.