1. In 1775, Slaves and free blacks are officially barred by the Council of Officers from joining the Continental army to help fight for American independence from England. Nevertheless, a significant number of blacks had already become involved in the fight and would distinguish themselves in battle. Additional blacks were barred out of the fear, especially in the South, that they would demand freedom for themselves if white America became free from Britain.
2. In 1969, Police officers and Blacks exchanged sniper fire on Chicago’s West Side. One youth was killed and nine policemen were injured.