1. In 1849, Avery College established in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Rev Charles Avery established the Allegheny Institute and Mission Church north of Pittsburgh, with the aim of offering elementary and advanced education to qualified African-American students without regard to sex. Both the racial and the coeducational features of the program were controversial, and the school’s connection to Pittsburgh’s A.M.E. Zion Church assured a strong religious influence in the officially nonsectarian institute. (Religious affiliation was not to be a consideration in admission decisions, but instructors were expected to be professing Christians.)
2. In 1855, John Mercer Langston, probably the first black elected to public office in America, wins the race for clerk of the Brownhelm Township, Lorain County, Ohio.
3. In 1859, Harpers Ferry Insurrection.
4. In 1883, S. E. Thomas Received Patent for Waste Trap
5. In 1895, The nation’s leading African American medical group, the National Medical Association, is founded in Atlanta.
6. In 1901, Booker T. Washington becomes the first black leader to dine at the White House with the president when Theodore Roosevelt invites him. Some black leaders charge Washington’s invitation was a result of his policies that they charge tended to accommodate racism. Nevertheless, the invitation and dinner served to crown Washington as the black leader of the period.
7. In 1940, Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. was named the first Black General in The U.S. Army.
8. In 1968, Sprinters John Carlos and Tommie Smith give the clenched-fist black power salute when accepting their medals at the Mexico City Olympics as a protest against racism in America. The white Australian sprinter in the historic picture also wore a human rights badge in support of their protest.
9. In 1973, Maynard Jackson, elected mayor of Atlanta. He served three terms, two consecutive terms from 1974 until 1982 and a third term from 1990 to 1994. He became the first African American mayor of Atlanta in the same week that Coleman Young became the first African-American mayor of Detroit.
10. In 1984, Archbishop Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end white-minority rule in South Africa.
11. In 1995, Nation of Islam leader, Minister Louis Farrakhan, leads the Million Man March to the Nation’s Capital in Washington, D.C. Over a million black men gather to “atone” and organize.